ANAFILAXIA CHOQUE ANAFILACTICO PDFJune 17, 2020
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Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. Common causes include insect bites and stings, foods, and medications. The primary treatment of anaphylaxis is epinephrine injection into a muscleintravenous fluidsand positioning the person flat.
Symptoms typically include generalized hivesitchinessflushingor swelling angioedema of the afflicted tissues. Respiratory symptoms and signs that may be present include shortness of breathwheezesor stridor. Coronary artery spasm may occur with subsequent myocardial infarctiondysrhythmiaor cardiac arrest. Gastrointestinal symptoms may include crampy abdominal paindiarrhea, and vomiting.
Anaphylaxis can occur in response to almost any foreign substance. Many foods can trigger anaphylaxis; this may occur upon the first known ingestion. In Western cultures, ingestion of or exposure to peanutswheatnutscertain types of seafood like shellfishmilkand eggs are the most prevalent causes.
Children can outgrow their allergies. Any medication may potentially trigger anaphylaxis. The frequency of a reaction to an agent partly depends on the frequency of its use and partly on its intrinsic properties.
Venom from stinging or biting insects such as Hymenoptera ants, bees, and wasps or Triatominae kissing bugs may cause anaphylaxis in susceptible people. People with atopic diseases such as asthmaeczemaor ansfilaxia rhinitis are at high risk of anaphylaxis from food, latexand radiocontrast agents but not from injectable medications or stings.
Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction of rapid onset affecting many body systems. In the immunologic mechanism, immunoglobulin E IgE binds to the antigen the foreign material that provokes anafillaxia allergic reaction. This leads to the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine. These mediators subsequently increase the contraction of bronchial smooth musclestrigger vasodilationincrease the leakage of fluid from blood vessels, and cause heart muscle depression.
Non-immunologic mechanisms involve substances that directly cause the degranulation of mast cells and basophils. These include agents such as contrast mediumopioidstemperature hot or coldand vibration. Anaphylaxis is diagnosed on the basis of a person’s signs and symptoms. Skin involvement may include: Respiratory difficulties may include: In adults a systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mmHg is often used. During an attack, blood tests for tryptase or histamine released from mast cells might be useful in diagnosing anaphylaxis due to insect stings or medications.
However these tests are of anafulaxia use if the cause is food or if the person has a normal blood pressure and they are not specific for the diagnosis. There are three main classifications of cnoque. Allergy testing may help in determining the trigger. Skin allergy testing is available for certain foods and venoms. Skin testing is available to confirm penicillin allergies, but is not available for other medications.
It can sometimes be difficult to distinguish anaphylaxis from asthmasyncopeand panic attacks. In a person who died from anaphylaxis, autopsy may show an “empty heart” attributed to reduced venous return from vasodilation and redistribution of intravascular volume from the central to the peripheral compartment. Avoidance of the trigger of anaphylaxis is recommended. In cases where this may not be possible, desensitization may anzfilaxia an option.
Oral immunotherapy may anfailaxia effective at desensitizing some people to certain food including milk, eggs, nuts and peanuts; however, adverse anwfilactico are common.
In those who react to latex it may be important to avoid cross-reactive foods such as avocados, bananas, and potatoes among others. Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency anfailaxia may require resuscitation measures such as airway managementsupplemental oxygenlarge volumes of intravenous fluids ansfilactico, and close monitoring. Epinephrine adrenaline is the primary treatment for anaphylaxis with no absolute contraindication to its use.
The injection may be repeated every 5 to 15 minutes if there is insufficient response. If necessary, it can also be given intravenously using a dilute epinephrine solution.
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Intravenous epinephrine, however, has been associated both with dysrhythmia and myocardial infarction. Antihistamines both H1 and H2while commonly used and assumed effective based on theoretical reasoning, are poorly supported by evidence. Their prophylactic effectiveness in these situations is uncertain. People prone to anaphylaxis are advised to have an “allergy action plan. The action plan usually includes use of epinephrine autoinjectorsthe recommendation to wear a medical alert braceletand counseling on avoidance of triggers.
A multi-year course of subcutaneous desensitization has been found effective against stinging insects, while oral desensitization is effective for many foods.
In those in whom the cause is known and prompt treatment is available, the prognosis is good. The number of people who get anaphylaxis is 4— perpersons per year,   with a lifetime risk of 0. Rates appear to be increasing: Anaphylaxis leads to as many choqke —1, deaths per year 2. The term aphylaxis was coined by Charles Richet in and later changed to anaphylaxis due to its nicer quality of speech.
Although the dog had previously tolerated the toxin, on re-exposure, three weeks later with the same dose, it developed fatal anaphylaxis. Thus instead of inducing tolerance prophylaxiswhen lethal responses resulted from previously tolerated doses, he coined the word a without phylaxis protection. He was subsequently awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on anaphylaxis in There are ongoing efforts to develop sublingual epinephrine to treat anaphylaxis.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Anaphylaxis Angioedema of the face such that the boy cannot open his eyes. This reaction was anafilaactico by an allergen exposure. Specialty Allergy and immunology Symptoms Itchy rash, throat swelling, shortness of breath, lightheadedness  Usual onset Over minutes to hours  Causes Insect bites, foods, medications  Anafilxxia method Based on symptoms  Differential diagnosis Allergic reactionangioedemaasthma exacerbationcarcinoid syndrome  Treatment Epinephrineintravenous fluids  Frequency 0.
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The American Journal of Medicine. Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology.
Methylene blue to treat anaphylaxis during anesthesia: case report
Consequences of external causes T66—T78— Hypothermia Immersion foot syndromes Trench foot Tropical immersion foot Warm water immersion foot Chilblains Frostbite Aerosol burn Cold intolerance Acrocyanosis Erythrocyanosis crurum. Radiation poisoning Radiation burn Chronic radiation keratosis Eosinophilic, polymorphic, and pruritic anafilwctico associated with radiotherapy Radiation acne Radiation-induced cancer Radiation recall reaction Radiation-induced anafilxctico multiforme Radiation-induced hypertrophic scar Radiation-induced keloid Radiation-induced morphea.
Physical abuse Sexual abuse Psychological abuse. Motion sickness Seasickness Airsickness Space adaptation syndrome.