ANCIENT INDIA BY RAM SHARAN SHARMA NCERT PDF

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Read Ancient India NCERT Based book reviews & author details and more at Back. Ancient India Old Ncert History Textbook By Ram Sharan Sharma. by Ram Sharan Sharma OLD NCERT,Modern India (Bipan Chandra) A History of India presents the grand sweep of Indian history from antiquity to the. Click Here To Download. Ancient India R S Sharma Pdf Download Old NCERT. NCERT, Book, History,. Please follow and like us.

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Search sharxn history of over billion web pages on the Internet. G S Narayanan Shri S. Narayanan, Shu S H. Khan and Shn Arjun Dev Convener. The Board had finalized the courses and prepared a series of textbooks The NCERT is grateful to the members of the Board for sparing their valuable time ungrudgingly m developing the new courses and textbooks m history within the short time that was given to them This textbook dealing with a historical survey of ancient India was prepared by Professor R S Shran and was first published in The present volume is the first revised edition of the textbook which had been out of stock since early 1 The NCERT is grateful to Professor R.

This volume covers the syllabus in ancient Indian history for the Higher Secondary stage Volumes deal- ing with the syllabus in medieval and modem periods of Indian history have also been brought out.

The NCERT would be grateful for any comments, suggestions and criticisms on any aspect of the present volume.

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The course m history up to this stage is, therefore, aimed at acquainting the pupil with important trends and developments in the -history of India and of the world. Pre- sently the Board is engaged m preparing four textbooks for the four semester courses in history. The syllabus includes optional courses on the history of regions outside India, and textbooks on these courses would be prepared when these courses are intro- duced in schools.

The present volume covering the course for the first semester deals with the history of ancient India from prehistoric times to about the eighth century. An effort has been made in this book to highlight the forces and factors behind the rise and spread of civilization and culture in India rather than present details of dynastic history.

The growth and diffusion of various aspects of civilization such as social classes, state formation, and political institutions have been treated clearly. The book points out the significant changes and marks the main stages m the development of Indian society in ancient times Attention has been paid to the contribution of ancient Indians to polity, art, literature, philosophy, religion, and science and technology.

The Editorial Board is grateful to Professor R. I have therefore utilized the works of numerous scholars not all of whose names appear in the bibliography. I took various kinds of help from Dr. Jain, Shrimati Vijaya Nath, Dr. Sitaram Rai, Kumari Snehlata and Dr.

Shri ArjunDev of the NCERT helped me in finalizing the preparation and publication of anfient book with ability, devotion and keen interest.

They all deserve my sincere thanks At one stage it seemed that the book would not appear again 1 am therefore happy to see its second edition. I gratefully acknowledge the support aharan suggestions received from a wide citcle of renowned historians including Dr. Suvira Jaiswal, Professor B. G, S, Narayanan, Professor A. The Importance of Ancient Indian History 2. The Geographical Setting 4. The Later Vcdic Phase: Iranian and Macedonian Invasions.

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State and Varna Society in the Age of the Buddha. The Age shara the Mauryas. Significance of the Maurya Rule. Central Asian Contacts and Their Results. The Age of the Satavahanas. Crafts — Foreign Trade — Urban Settlements It tells us how, when and where people developed the earliest cultures in our countiy.

It indicates how they started kndia which made life secure and settled. It shows how the ancient Indians discovered and utilized natural resources, and how they created the means for their livelihood We come to know how they took to farming, spinning, weaving, metal-working, and so on; how they cleared forests, and how they founded villages, cities, and finally large kingdoms.

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People are not considered civilized unless they know writing The different forms of writing prevalentin India today are all derived from the ancient scripts This is rak true of the langua- ges that we speak today The languages we use have roots in ancient times, and have developed through the ages. Ancient Indian history is interesting because India proved to be a crucible of numerous races.

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Each ethnic group contributed its mite to the making of Indian culture All these peoples mixed up so inextricably with one another that at present none 6f them can beidentified in their original form India has since ancient times been the land of several religions Ancient India witnessed the birth of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism, but all these cultures nceft religions intermingled and acted and reacted upon one another in such a manner that though people speak languages, practise shsran rehgic observe different social customs, thi certain common styles of life throuj country.

Our country shows a deep u unity m spite of great diversity. The ancients strove for unity. In century B C Asoka extended his er the whole country, except for the extr Again, in the fourth century A.

In t century the Chalukya king, Pulakesi Harshavardhana shaema was called tl the whole of north India. In spite political unity political formations a country assumed more or less the s.

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The unity of India was also recognized by foreigners. They first came into contact with the people living on the Sindhu or the Indus, and so they named the whole country after this river. We find continuous efforts for the linguistic and cultural unity of the country. In the third century B. Prakrit served as the lingua franca of the country. The process became prominent in the Gupta period in the fourth century A.

Although politically the country was divided into numerous small states in the post, -Gupta period, the official documents were written in Sanskrit. Another notable fact is that the ancients epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, were studied with the’ same zeal and devotion ifi the land of the Tamils as m the intellectual circles of Banaras and Taxila. Originally composed in Sanskrit these epics came to be presented in diffeient local languages.

But whatever the form in which Indian cultural values and ideas were expressed, the substance remained the same throughout the country Indian history deserves our attention because of a peculiar type of social system which developed in this country.

The foreigners who came to India’ iq ancient times were absorbed in one caste or the other The caste system affected even the Christians and the Muslims. The converts belonged to some caste, and even when they left Hinduism to join the new religion they continued to maintain some of their old caste practices. In what ways does ancient Indian history show the basic unity of India? CHAPTER 2 The Construction of Ancient Indian History Material Remains The ancient Indians left innumerable material remains The stone temples in south India and the brick monasteries in eastern India still stand to remind us ‘of the great building activi- ties of the past But the major part of these remains lies buried in the mounds scattered all over the country.

Only a few have been exposed to give us some knowledge of the life of the ancient people. Since most sites have been dug vertically they provide a good chronological sequence of material culture.

Horizontal diggings, being very expensive, are very few in number, with the result that excavations do not give us a full and complete picture of material life in many phases of ancient Indian history Even in those mounds which have been excavated the ancient remains have been preser- ved in varying proportions.

In the dry climate of western Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and north- western India antiquities are found in a better state of preservation, but in the moist and humid climate of the middle Gangetic basin and in the deltaic regions even iron implements suffer corrosion and mud structures become difficult to detect. It is only in the phase of burnt brick structures or stone structures that impressive and large-scale, remains are found in moist and alluvial areas Excavations have brought to light the cities which the people established around B.

Similarly they tell us about the material cul- ture which was developed in the Gangetic basin. They show the layout of the settlements in which people lived, the type of pottery they used, the form of house in which they dwelt, the kind of cereals they used as food, and the type of tools and implements they handled.

Some people in south India buried along with the dead, their tools, weapons, pottery and other belong- ings in the graves, which were encircled by big pieces of stone. These structures are called megaliths, although all megaliths do not fall in this category By digging them we have come to learn of the life which people lived in the Deccan from the iron age onwards.

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Material remains recovered as a result of excavation and exploration are subjected to various kinds of scientific examination. Their dates are fixed according to the radio-carbon method, for which facilities exist in’India. The history of climate and vegetation is known through an examination of plant residues, and especially through pollen-analysis.

Thus on this basis it is suggested that agriculture was practised in Rajasthan and Kashmir as far back as B. The nature and components of metal arti- facts are analysed’ scientifically, and as a result the sources from where metals were obtained are 4 ANCIENT INDIA located and the stages in the development of metal technology are identified.

An examination of animal bones enables us to find out whether the animals were domesticated, and also to point out the uses to which they were put.

Coins Although a anxient number of coins and inscrip- tions have been found on the surface, many of them have been unearthed by digging. The study of coins is called numismatics. Ancient Indian currency was not issued in the form of paper, as is the practice these days, but as coins because paper came to be used in India much later, in the fourteenth century.

Ancient coins weremade of metal— copper, silver, gold, or lead. Coin moulds made of burnt clay have been discov- ered in large numbers. Most of them belong to the Kushan period, i. The use of such moulds in the post-Gupta period almost disappeared, Since shatan was nothinglike the modern bank- ing system in ancient times, people deposited money in earthen ware and also m brass vessels, and nncert them as precious hoards on which they could fall back ijdia time of need.

Many of these hoards, containing not only Indian coins but also those minted abroad such as in the Roman empire, have been discovered m indiia parts of the country.

Since Britain ruled over India for a long time, British officials succeeded m transferring many of the Indian coins to private and public collections in that country. Coins of the major dynasties have been catalogued and published.

But there is a large number of coins which have yet to be catalogued and published. Our earliest coins contain a few symbols, but the later coins mention the names of nidia, gods or dates, The areas where they are found indicate the region of their circulation.

This has enabled us to reconstruct the history of several ruling dynasties, especially of the Indo-Greeks who came to India from north Afghanistan and ruled here in the second and first centuries B. Coins also throw significant light on econo- mic history. Some coins were issued by the guilds of merchants and goldsmiths with the permis- sion of the rulers, This shows that crafts and commerce had become important Rm helped transactions on a large scale and contributed to trade.

We get the largest number of coins in post- Maurya times These were made of lead, potin, copper, bronze, silver and gold.

The Guptas issued the largest number of gold coins. All this indicates that trade and commerce flourished, especially in post-Maurya and Gupta times. But the fact that only a few coins belonging to the post-Gupta period have been found indicates the decline of trade and commerce at that time. Corns also contain religious symbols and legends which throw light on indis art and religion of the time, Inscriptions Far more important than coins are inscrip- tions.

Their study is called epigraphyand the study of ncrt old writing used in inscriptions and other old records is called palaeography. Inscrip- tions were carved on seals, stone pillars, rocks, copper plates, temple walls and bricks or images. In the country as a whole the earliest inscrip- tions ncrrt recorded on stone. But in the early centuries of the Christian era copper plates began to be used for this purpose. Even then the prac- tice of engraving inscriptions on stone continued in south India on a large scale.