API ROBOCODE PDFJune 18, 2020
A more advanced type of robot than Robot that allows non-blocking calls. The JuniorRobot has a simplified model, in purpose of teaching programming. A HitRobotEvent is sent to onHitRobot() when your robot collides with another.
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Learning Java programming is more fun than ever with this advanced robot battle simulation engine. Robocode is an easy-to-use robotics battle simulator that runs across all platforms supporting Java 2. You create a robot, put it onto a battlefield, and let it battle to the bitter end against opponent robots created by other developers. Robocode comes with a set of pre-fab opponents to get you started, but once you outgrow them, you can enter your creation against the world’s best in one of the leagues being formed worldwide.
Each Robocode participant creates his or her own robot using elements of the Java language, enabling a range of developers — from rank beginners to advanced hackers — to participate in the fun. Beginning Java developers can learn the basics: Advanced developers can tune their programming skill in a global challenge to build the best-of-breed software robot.
In this article, we will introduce Robocode and start you on your way to conquering the world by building your very first Robocode robot. We will also take a peek at the fascinating “behind the scenes” machinery that makes Robocode tick. First, head to the Robocode page.
Here, you will find the latest dobocode of the Robocode system. Once you have downloaded the distribution, which is in a self-contained installation file, you can use the following command to get the package installed on your system assuming you have a Java VM JDK 1.
During installation, Robocode will ask you if you’d like to use this external Java VM for robot compilations. The other alternative is the Jikes compiler that is supplied as part of the Robocode distribution. After your installation, you can start the Robocode system from either the shell script rpbocode. At this point, the battlefield will appear. From here, you can invoke the Robot Editor and compiler using the menu.
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The battlefield is where the battle between the robots plays itself out. It houses the main simulation engine and allows you to create, ai, and open new or existing battles. You can pause and resume the battle, terminate the battle, destroy any individual robot, or get the statistics of any robot using the controls available in the arena. Furthermore, you can activate the Robot Editor from this screen.
The Robovode Editor is a customized text editor for editing the Java source files that make up a robot. It integrates both the Java compiler for compiling robot code and the customized Robot packager in its menu. Any robot created with the Robot Editor and successfully compiled is in a ready-to-deploy location for the battlefield.
A robot in Robocode consists of one or more Java classes. These classes can be archived into a JAR package. The latest version of Robocode provides a “Robot Packager” that can be activated from the battlefield GUI window, for just this purpose.
At the time of this writing, a Robocode robot is a graphical tank. Figure 2 illustrates a typical Robocode robot. Note that the robot has a rotating gun, and on top of the gun is a rotating radar. The robot vehicle, the gun, and the radar can all rotate independently: By default, these items are aligned, facing the direction of the vehicle movement.
You will find them as public methods of the robocode. In this section, we’ll cover each of the available commands, by category.
None of these commands will apk control to the program until they are completed. Furthermore, when the vehicle is turned, the direction of the gun and radar will also move, unless indicate differently by calling the following methods:.
Many methods exist for getting information about the robot. Here is a short list of frequently used method calls:. Once you have mastered how to move the robot and its associated weaponry, it’s a good time to consider the tasks of firing and controlling damage.
Each robot starts out with a default “energy level,” and is considered destroyed when its energy level falls to zero. When firing, the robot can use up to three units robcode energy.
Rock ’em, sock ’em Robocode!
The more energy supplied to the bullet, the more damage it will inflict on the target robot. The fireBullet version of the call returns a reference to a robocode.
Bullet object that can be used in advanced robots. Whenever the robot moves or turns, the radar is always active, and if it detects any robots within its range, an event is triggered. As the robot creator, you can choose to handle various events that can occur during the battle.
The basic Robot class has default handlers for all of these events. However, you can override any of these “do nothing” default handlers and implement your own custom actions.
Here are some of the more frequently used events:. That’s all we need to know to create some pretty complex robots. You can find the rest of the Robocode API in the Javadoc, which can be accessed from either the battlefield’s help menu or the Robot Editor’s help menu.
You will be prompted for the name of the robot, which will become the Java class name. Enter DWStraight at this prompt. Next, you will be prompted for a unique initial, which will be used for the name of the package that the robot and potentially its associated Java file will reside in. Enter dw at this prompt. The Robot Editor will display the Java code that you need to write to control the robot.
Listing 1 is an example of the code that you will see:. The highlighted areas are those places where we can add code to control the robot:. Area 1 In this space we can declare class scope variables and set their value. They will be available within the robot’s run method, as well as any other helper methods that you may create. Area 2 The run method is called by the battle manager to start the robot’s life. It typically consists of two areas designated Area 2 and Area 3 in Listing 1 where you can add code.
Area 2 is where you will place code that will run only once per robot instance.
It is often used to get the robot into a pre-determined state before starting repetitive action. Area 3 This is the second part of a typical run method implementation. Here, within an endless while loop, we’ll program the repetitive action that a robot may be involved in. Area 4 This is the area where you add helper methods for the robot to use within its run logic.
It’s also where you add any event handlers that you wish to robocods. For robocodd, the code in Listing 1 handles the ScannedRobot event and simply fires directly at the robot whenever one is detected by the radar. For our first robot, DWStraight, we’ll update the code as shown in bold in Listing 2. Area 1 We don’t specify any class scope variables in this robot. Area 2 To get the robot rogocode a known state, we turn it so that xpi faces 0 degrees using turnLeft getHeading. Area 3 In this repetitive section, we move the robot forward as far as it will go using ahead It will stop when it hits a wall or robot.
java – Need Help To Make A Good Robocode Robot – Stack Overflow
Then we turn right using turnRight aip As this is repeated, the robot robocofe basically trace out the walls in a clockwise direction. Area 4 Here, in addition to handling the auto-generated ScannedRobot event and firing at the robot that is found directly, we also detect the HitByBullet event and turn ai going clockwise and counterclockwise, alternately when we get hit.
We are now ready to try our first battle. Add our roboclde, dw. DWStraight to the battle, then add an opponent robot, such as sample. Click Finishand the battle will begin. Admittedly, doing battle with SittingDuck is not too exciting, but you get to see what the DWStraight robot does by default. Experiment with other robots in the sample collection, and see how DWStraight fares against them. When you’re ready to examine the coding of another robot, check out the dw.
DWRotater robot code that is supplied with the code distribution in Related topics. This robot will, by default:. The code is straightforward and we will not analyze it here, but I encourage you to try it out.
The sample package included with Robocode provides code for many other robots, as well. As you become more competent in robot design, the body of code that you can include with the robot can increase substantially. A modular way to handle the code is robocore decompose it into separate Java classes and then bundle them into a single package JAR fileusing the packager, appi include as part of your robot distribution.
Robocode will automatically find robot classes within packages placed in its robots directory. I caught up with Mathew Nelson, Robocode’s creator, and asked him about his original motivation for creating Robocode.
Rock ’em, sock ’em Robocode!
Here’s what Mat had to share: I think I did it. Anyone can create subclasses of Robot and add new functionalities that can be used to build robots. A description of the AdvancedRobot class is beyond the scope of this article, but I encourage you to experiment with this advanced class when you are comfortable with the operation of the basic Robot class. A look behind the scenes at Robocode reveals a spi simulation engine that is both high performance in order to render the battle at realistic speed and flexible enabling robofode creation of complex robotics logic without getting in the way.
A special thanks to Robocode creator Mathew Nelson for graciously providing the inside information on the architecture of the simulation engine.