ARYSTOTELES METAFIZYKA KSIGA 1 PDFJuly 26, 2020
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xrystoteles Some features of this site may not work without it. My choice, with regard to my long standing interest in Richard Kilvington, was obvious. I decided to present a Polish translation of his Question on motion along with a monograph. The main purpose of this study is to verify, through detailed analyses, the commonly accepted view about the revolutionary character of the new theory of motion invented and developed by the members of the so-called school of Oxford Calculators, arystotelds was emtafizyka by Richard Kilvington and Thomas Bradwardine.
The book consists of two parts. William of Ockham and Thomas Bradwardine. Richard Kilvington was born in the beginning of the fourteenth century in the village of Kilvington in Yorkshire.
His academic career was followed by a diplomatic and ecclesiastical one. It culminated in his service as Dean of St. Along with Richard Fitzralph, Kilvington was involved in the battle against mendicant friars almost until his death in Nevertheless, Kilvington ponders questions, which would never arise as a result of direct observation, since the arystotekes of nature can only be uncovered by highly abstract analyses.
Such abstractions, however, arise from genuine realities and cannot contradict them. He sees physics and mathematics as complementary, i. Reality provides the starting point for the more complicated mental constructions, which in turn make it comprehensible.
While mathematics is the proper way to solve the problems, logic remains the most convenient way to pose them. These different methods together guarantee the objective and demonstrative character of the natural sciences. On the one hand, Kilvington never abandons the realm of Aristotelian physics or rejects the principles laid down in his natural philosophy.
METAFIZYKA ARYSTOTELES EPUB
Kilvington pointed to two different conditions which have to be met: Like a great many Oxford thinkers of the period, Kilvington is convinced that mathematics is useful in any branch of scientific inquiry that deals with measurable subjects. He makes a broad use of the most popular fourteenthcentury calculative techniques to solve not only physical but also ethical and theological problems.
The most predominant is the measure by limits, i. The second type of calculation, by a latitude of forms, covers processes in which accidental forms or qualities are intensified or diminished, e. Finally, the third type of calculation is more properly mathematical and employs a new calculus of compounding ratios in order to measure the speed of local motion.
Although Kilvington subscribes to the general Aristotelian principles of motion, he follows Ockham in accepting substance and quality as the only two kinds of really existing things. He explains the reality of motion in terms of the mobile subject and places, qualities, and quantities it acquires successively. It is his analysis of local motion that places Kilvington among the 14th-century pioneers who considered the problem of motion with respect to its cause tamquam penes causamcorresponding to modern dynamics, and with respect to its effect tamquam penes effectumcorresponding to modern kinematics.
METAFIZYKA ARYSTOTELES EPUB
He articulates most of the issues, which were at stake, and poses questions that influenced the solutions of later Calculators. Local motion considered in its dynamic aspect, i. Local motion considered in its kinematic aspect describes metafizyoa changes of speed with regard to time and traversed distance, and it describes both uniform and uniformly difform motion. Like William of Ockham, Kilvington is convinced that a motion is nothing else than an individual thing in motion.
Therefore, speed has to be measured by distances, i. In his questions he considers all sorts of motion, which can occur both in a medium and in a void. Although he holds that the vacuum does not exist in nature, he is nevertheless convinced, contrary to Aristotle, that neither logic nor nature exclude a possible existence of a vacuum. Moreover, using a new rule of motion it is possible to show that a motion in a vacuum would be temporal for both mixed and simple bodies.
Kilvington is convinced that two main Ockhamist principles, namely particularist ontology and economy of thinking, suffice to explain all qualitative changes, arystoeles becoming white or cold.
Since a quality is a real thing, it is enough to conclude that in the process of becoming hot a body possesses the same quality, which changes from one extreme, i. In reality, there are only substances and qualities, the only existing permanent things, while the remaining eight Aristotelian categories serve only to describe various aspects of an individual thing in the outside reality.
His Quaestiones de motu were well known to the next generation of the Oxford Calculators and influenced also such prominent Parisian masters as Nicole Oresme and John Buridan. The analysis of dispersal of new ideas of mathematical physics point strongly at Kilvington as their primary source. In the present book I reiterate the opinion expressed in my previous book that medieval science was a specific phenomenon of the medieval culture.
It can hardly be compared with modern science and its views of the arystoteled are clearly incompatible with the modern ones. In its history, medieval science took metafizuka Aristotelian course, thoroughly explored that framework exposing its paradoxes and weakness and reached the point, where it was no longer able to overcome the lingering doubt.
Its story is finished, so each historian of science is free to write his or her own tale about it. Capit y Colombina San Marco VI, 72 IX, Venetiis, apud Iunctas M. IV, Venetiis, apud Iunctas M. Busard, Franz Steiner Verlag Pinborg, A Logical Treatise ascribed to Bradwardine, [w: Paravicini Bagliani, Roma His Tractatus de Proportionibus.
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Corpus Aristotelicum – Wikipedia, wolna encyklopedia
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