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Muslims defeated a Roman army at Yarmuk, in Syria, in The Battle of Yarmuk is now little remembered, but its outcome forever changed. The collapse of Byzantium’s military position in the near-east was sealed by the Battle of Yarmuk (also spelled Yarmouk) in AD Indeed, it is no exaggeration . The Battle of Yarmuk, fought in AD, was the turning point in Arab history that put a stop to any future Muslim attempt to expand into Europe. Fought between.

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Muslim conquest of the Levant.

Yarmuk, Battle of

Muslim conquest of Egypt. Muslim conquest of North Africa. Umayyad invasions of Anatolia and Constantinople. Sicily and Southern Italy. Conquest of the Persian Empire. Conquest of Roman Syria. Campaigns in Armenia and Anatolia. The battle consisted of a series of engagements that lasted for six days in Augustnear the Yarmouk Riveralong what today are the borders of Syria—Jordan and Syria—Palestineeast of battlr Sea of Galilee.

The result of the battle was a complete Muslim victory which ended Byzantine rule in Syria. The Battle yarmhk Yarmouk is regarded as one of the most decisive battles in military history, [7] [8] and it marked the first great wave of early Muslim conquests after the death of the Prophet Muhammadheralding the rapid advance of Islam into the then Christian Levant.

In order bwttle check the Arab advance and to recover lost territory, Emperor Heraclius had sent a massive expedition to the Levant in May As the Byzantine army approached, the Arabs tactically withdrew from Syria and regrouped all their forces at the Yarmouk plains close to the Arabian Peninsulayatmuk, after being reinforced, they defeated the numerically superior Byzantine army.

The battle is considered to be one of Khalid ibn al-Walid ‘s greatest military victories.

Battle of Yarmouk | Summary |

It cemented his reputation as one of the greatest tacticians and cavalry commanders in history. Induring the Byzantine—Sasanian War of —Heraclius became the garmuk of the Byzantine Empire, [10] after overthrowing Phocas.

Heraclius, inmanaged to expel the Persians from Anatolia, but was decisively defeated in when he launched a major offensive abttle Syria against the Persians.

Meanwhile, Heraclius prepared for a counterattack and rebuilt his army. Nine years later inHeraclius finally launched his offensive. Discredited by these series of disasters, Khosrow II was overthrown and killed in a coup led by his son Kavadh IIyarmuuk who at once sued for peaceagreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories of the Byzantine Empire.

Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem with a majestic ceremony in Meanwhile, there had been rapid political development in the Arabian Peninsula, where Muhammad had been preaching Islam and byhe had successfully united most of Arabia under a single political authority. Troubles emerged soon after Abu Bakr ‘s succession, when several Arab tribes openly revolted against Abu Bakr, who declared war against the rebels.

In what became known as the Ridda wars of —, Abu Bakr managed to unite Arabia under the abttle authority of the Caliph at Medina. Once the rebels had been subdued, Abu Batrle began a war of conquest, beginning with Iraq. Sending his most brilliant general, Khalid ibn al-WalidIraq was conquered in a series of successful campaigns against the Sassanid Persians. Abu Bakr’s confidence grew, and once Khalid established his stronghold in Bagtle, Abu Bakr issued a call to arms for the invasion of Syria in February Khalid was sent by Abu Bakr from Iraq to Syria with reinforcements and to lead the invasion.

In Julythe Byzantines were decisively defeated at Ajnadayn. Damascus fell in Septemberfollowed by the Battle of Baytle where the last significant garrison of Palestine was defeated and routed.

Caliph Abu Bakr died in Batte successor, Umarwas determined to continue the Caliphate Empire ‘s expansion deeper into Syria. Yarmuo secured southern Palestine, Muslim forces now advanced up the trade bagtle, where Tiberias and Baalbek fell without much struggle, and conquered Emesa early in From thereon, the Muslims continued their conquest across the Levant.


Having seized Emesa, the Muslims were just a march away from Aleppoa Byzantine uarmuk, and Antiochwhere Heraclius resided. Seriously alarmed by the series of setbacks, Heraclius prepared for a counterattack to reacquire the lost regions. Heraclius married off his daughter according to traditions, his grand daughter Manyanh to Yazdegerd III, to cement the alliance. While Heraclius prepared battld a major offensive in the Levant, Yazdegerd was to yarumk a simultaneous counterattack in Iraqin what was meant to be a well-coordinated effort.

When Heraclius launched his offensive in MayYazdegerd could not coordinate with the maneuver—probably owing batttle the exhausted condition of his government—and what would have been a decisive plan missed the mark.

Byzantine preparations began in late and by May Heraclius had a large force concentrated at Antioch in Northern Syria. Vahan, an Armenian and the former garrison commander of Emesa, [26] was made the overall field commander, [27] and had under his command a purely Armenian army. The remaining contingents, all European, were placed under Gregory and Dairjan. Byzantine sources mention Niketas, son yamuk the Persian general Shahrbarazamong the commanders, but it is not certain which army he commanded.

At that time, the Rashidun army was yzrmuk into four groups: As the Muslim forces were geographically divided, Heraclius sought to exploit this situation and planned to attack.

He did not wish to engage in a single yarmuj battle but rather to employ central position and fight the enemy in detail by concentrating large forces against each of the Muslim corps before they could consolidate their troops. By forcing the Muslims to retreat, or by destroying Muslim forces separately, he would fulfill his strategy of recapturing lost territory. Reinforcements were sent to Caesarea under Heraclius’ son Constantine III probably to tie down Yazid’s forces which were besieging the town.

The Muslims discovered Heraclius’ preparations at Shaizar through Roman prisoners. Alert to the possibility of being caught with separated forces that could be destroyed, Khalid called for a council of war.

There he advised Abu Ubaidah to pull the troops back from Palestine and from Northern and Central Syria, and then to concentrate the entire Rashidun army in one place. Instructions were also issued to return the jizya tribute to the people who had paid it. Encamping in the region was also precarious as a strong Byzantine force was garrisoned in Caeseara and could attack the Muslim rear while they were held in front by the Byzantine army.

This was a strong defensive position and these maneuvers pitted the Muslims and Byzantines into a decisive battle, one which the latter had tried to avoid. The battlefield lies in the plain of Jordanian Hauranjust south-east of the Golan Heightsan upland region currently on the frontier between Jordan ywrmuk Syria, east of the Sea of Galilee.

The battle was fought on the plain south of Yarmouk River.

This ravine joins the Yarmouk River, a tributary of the Jordan Riveron its south. On the yatmuk is the Jabiyah road and to the east are baftle Azra hills, although these hills were outside the actual field of battle. Strategically there was only one prominence in the battlefield: The ravine on the west of the battlefield was accessible at a few places in AD, and had one main crossing: The plain was excellent for cavalry maneuvers.

Most early accounts place the size of the Muslim forces between 24, and 40, and the number of Byzantine forces betweenandModern estimates for the sizes of the respective armies vary: Original accounts are mostly from Arab sources, generally agreeing that the Byzantine army and their allies outnumbered the Muslim Arabs by a sizeable margin.

Accounts of the battle vary, some stating it lasted a day, others more than a day. The army was organized in the Tabi’a formation, a tight, defensive infantry formation.

The army’s right flank was on the Jabiyah road in the north across the heights of Tel al Jumm’a[46] with substantial gaps between the divisions so that their frontage would match that of the Byzantine battle line at 13 kilometres 8.


The center of the army was under the command of Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah left center and Shurahbil bin Hasana right yamruk. The left wing was under the command of Yazid and the right wing was under Amr ibn al-A’as. Behind the center stood the mobile guard under the personal command of Khalid. If and when Khalid was too occupied in leading the general army, Dharar ibn al-Azwar would command the mobile guard.

Over the course of the battle, Khalid would repeatedly make critical and decisive use of this mounted reserve. After this skirmish, no engagement occurred for a month. Helmets used included gilded helmets yarrmuk to the silver helmets of the Vattle empire. Mail was commonly used to protect the face, neck and cheeks either as an aventail from the helmet or as a mail coif.

Heavy leather sandals as well as Roman-type sandal boots were also typical of the early Muslim soldiers. Infantry soldiers were more heavily armored than horsemen.

Large wooden or wickerwork shields were used. Long-shafted spears were used, with infantry spears being 2. Short infantry swords like the Roman gladius and Sassanid long swords were used; long swords kf usually carried by horsemen. Swords were hung in baldrics. Bows were about 2 metres 6. Early Muslim archers, while being infantry archers without the mobility of horseback archer regiments, proved to be very effective in defending against light and unarmored cavalry yamruk.

A battl days after the Muslims encamped at the Yarmouk plain, the Byzantine army, preceded by the lightly armed Ghassanids of Jabalah, moved o and established strongly fortified camps just north of the Wadi-ur-Ruqqad. The left flank of the Byzantines was bathle the north, a short distance before the Hills of Jabiyah began, and was relatively exposed. Vahan deployed the Imperial Army facing east, with a front about 13 kilometres 8.

The right wing was commanded by Gregory and the batlte by Qanatir. The center was formed by the army of Dairjan and the Armenian army of Vahan, both under the overall command of Dairjan. The Roman regular heavy cavalrythe cataphractwas distributed equally among the four armies, each army deploying its infantry at the forefront and its cavalry as batgle reserve in the rear. Vahan deployed Jabalah’s Christian Arabsmounted on horses and camels, as a skirmishing force, screening the main army until its arrival.

The chains were in man lengths and were used as a proof of unshakeable courage on the part of the men, who thus displayed their willingness to die where they stood and never retreat.

The chains also acted as an insurance against a breakthrough by enemy cavalry. However, modern historians suggest that the Byzantines adopted the Graeco-Roman testudo military formation, in which soldiers would stand shoulder-to-shoulder with shields held high and an arrangement of 10 to 20 men would be completely shielded on all sides from missile fire, each soldier providing cover for an adjoining yarmku.

The Byzantine cavalry was armed with a long sword, known as the spathion. They would also have had a light wooden lanceknown as a kontarion and a bow toxarion with forty arrows in a quiver, hung from a saddle or from the belt.

The lightly armed Byzantine troops and the archers carried a small shield, a bow hung from the shoulder across the back and a quiver of arrows. Cavalry armor consisted of a hauberk with a mail coif and a helmet with a pendant, i.

Infantry was similarly equipped with a hauberk, a helmet and leg armor. Light lamellar and scale armor was also used.