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Polecane przez autora: Dusza Wojownika w pałacu Kaddafiego · Diablo III a mikropłatności · Kwartet niezwykłych tancerzy · Zobacz wszystkie». Vulcania – zegarek z duszą. SZYMON ADAMUS • dawno temu • 42 Dusza Wojownika w pałacu Kaddafiego. Podczas rewolucji w Libii zniknęły straże. “Dusza przeciwnika” (“The Character of the Foe” [collected in The Mirror of the . (see below) and was reprinted in the journal Poradnik Świetlicowy in of the Adversary] by St. Olgierd in ; and “Dusza wojownika” [The Character of.

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Conrad in Polish Periodicals: No part of this text may be reposted poadnik republished without the permission of the author. During the years immediately after Poland regained its independence inthe country could boast few literary periodicals. Typically, each issue consisted of six to eight pages, roughly 27 by 35 cm, and contained more than 20 contributions. Its illustrations and graphics were always carefully chosen and well-matched. Though opposed to the right-wing nationalistic press, it allowed for the publication of different views and opinions, for which it was attacked fiercely by the nationalist press.

Contributors included many of leading artists and intellectuals of the period: Dussa chiefly literary magazine in the s, it evolved in the following decade into a socio-literary weekly. It got involved in social debates and promoted secularization of public life and culture, the equality of women and conscious motherhood.

As Magda Opalski observes: As a literary periodical it was journalistically highly dynamic in offering continuous coverage of new topics. Its focus changed but remained within the area of current issues: Our journal aims at being informative.

Its objective is to re-establish the long-broken connection with European art and culture. It aspires to take part in the mission to pull down the wall which separates us from the centres of modern civilization. It does not represent any aesthetic school. It does not fight for one doctrine or another. Neither does it defend or desire any dogmas which limit potadnik freedom of artistic creation.

That is why it advances the ideals of honest work in the name of art. These pieces were not selected haphazardly. Poland, which had regained independence after years of partition during which time it remained landlocked, did not have its own maritime literature. The Naval School in Tczew has been operating for some time, and the Polish navy is slowly developing. The students of the Naval School, the officers aboard ships, and the youth in general need sea literature.

What is the best? Letters which he thought his father had burnt were safely kept in the renowned Jagiellonian Library. ByConrad had become a familiar name in Poland with the serialization of a number of his works in other Polish periodicals:.

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Wyrzutek An Outcast of the Islandstrans. Banita An Outcast of the Islandstrans.

W oczach zachodu Under Western Eyestrans. Los Chancetrans. Framing a photograph of Eojownika, it opened with a eulogy: It accentuated the role of the sea in his biography and writing, putting to the fore maritime works such as TyphoonThe Nigger of the Narcissus ,andThe Mirror of the Seaparticularly the fragment about storms and ships which appeared in translation elsewhere in this number. Was the ellipsis at the end the sentence meant to imply an understatement?


A study of this type usually begins by situating the translation within the recipient literary system. The text is then analysed in terms of acceptability, i. The founder of DTS, Gideon Toury, assigns priority to the function of translations within a given culture since it is the function that determines the desired properties of the text, and thus governs the process pordanik translation. Hence it is not our aim to evaluate the translation Bassnett20let alone evaluate an early-twentieth-century text from our modern perspective.

We will therefore concentrate on the process of manipulating the original that takes place in order to make it accessible to readers. Poranik Theo Hermans has remarked in an essay on literary translation: Explication Explication clarifies new concepts to target readers, replacing the unknown idea by a broader descriptive equivalent.

There are numerous examples in the translated text when Poradnlk explains the source information to the Polish audience, either by repetition or by definition. In some cases, possibly unsure whether Polish readers would understand correctly, he reiterates wwojownika phrase, making it more precise:.

Whatever craft he handles with skill, the seaman of the future shall be not our descendantbut only our successor. Conrad73; emphasis added. I remember once seeing susza commander. Addition This technique was applied for two reasons. First, to clarify and make the original more explicit; and second, to add cohesion to a seemingly chaotic and free-flowing narrative structure.

Thus Conrad ends one paragraph with the sentence:. One seems to have known gales as enemies, and even as enemies one embraces them in that affectionate regret which clings to the past. But in the Polish version a different point is being made, namely, that although we have known storms as adversaries, we confuse and conflate them in our sentimentalizing attitude towards the past. The translator wants to prepare the dusxa for the plethora of recollections of various gales at sea so that they will not be overwhelmed by the ostensibly chaotic wave of details; the added sentence plays the role of an introductory hint.

Other type of addition function to make the text more explicit, ridding it of all indeterminacies. This goal is achieved by adding a new image or phrase. Let us begin with a key concept, that of a foe, which forms the basis of the title: And, indeed, the wojlwnika twice mentions the soul.

Wojownkka first comes in a memory of a conversation with a boatswain:. The note of dread in the shouting voice. Conrad79; emphasis added. The Polish wojownikq thus intensifies the first usage and justifies the title of the text.

In coming at the end of a paragraph, it acquires further rhetorical force. Extra images constitute another type of addition. These are based on introducing a new metaphor into the text to intensify its meaning. Wojowhika such metaphors, of a nutshell and a witch, are added to the Polish version.

The former is introduced during the meeting with the captain of the wool clipper:. Fancy having to go about the sea in duzza thing like that!

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Conrad74; emphasis added. This metaphor of a nutshell recurs three times in pradnik translation. In the first, it is extended and made even more detailed:.

He may have thought of the size of his cabin, or unconsciously, perhaps — have conjured up a vision of a vessel so small tossing amongst the great seas. Some years later, the second mate. Why, you get flung out of your bunk as likely as not in any sort of heavy weather. In so doing, the translator may have assumed that the target audience would not distinguish between a brigantine or any other type of vessel, for the simple reason that such terminology did not exist in the Polish language.


The other image inserted into the text by the translator is that of a witch:. For a true expression of disheveled wildness dusz is nothing like a gale in the bright moonlight of a high latitude. Conrad78; emphasis added. Substitution Substitution is the most obvious domestication technique for making foreign texts more accessible to target readers.

Conrad76; emphasis added.

The common basis for this replacement may have been the fact that wojoownika creatures suck human blood. Yet the image Conrad creates is that of a supernatural evil spirit that feeds on human corpses and lures the unwary into abandoned places.

In its connotations of terror and mystery, it triggers associations with works of folklore such as The Thousand and One Nights. By contrast, the translated text offers leeches, a thoroughly natural phenomenon.

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Though repellent for some, these bloodsuckers have been used in medicine since antiquity, creating very different connotations for the readers of the translation. By domesticating the original image, the translator changes the complex intertextual dimension and reduces its exotic character.

The Polish translation also replaces wildcats with dogs, possibly because the image of a pack of hungry stray dogs attacking beggars or vagabonds is more familiar in Polish literature.

As such, it creates connotations that, while different, are less pronounced than in the previosu examples:.

It may be applied for several reasons: The other great cape of the world, strangely enough, is seldom if ever called a cape. The third stormy cape of the world, which is the Leeuwin receives generally its full name, as if to console its second-rate dignity. These are the capes that look upon the gales.

Brodzki may have left out this fragment because he regarded it as an unimportant digression. He may have wanted to simplify the apparently disordered flow of ideas and make it easier for readers to follow. Whatever the case, the elimination ruptures a fine net of intratextual references or cohesionsince the capes are mentioned for a second time later in the essay.

Readers of the original can easily link both references and situate the seemingly unconnected vignette of three capes in its place. Rather than simplifying the narrative for readers, Brodzki has made it more tangled. Indeed, the omission forces him to add some information when the capes reoccur in the story:.

It was off that other capewhich is always deprived of its title just as the Cape of Good Hope is robbed of its name. It was off the Horn. When Poland regained its independence init had spent more than a century as a partitioned and landlocked country without navy or merchant marine. For this reason the Polish language had only a limited lexicon of maritime terminology.