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Kingdom: Plantae. Phylum/Division: Magnoliophyta. Class: Eudicots. Order: Malpighiales. Family: Euphorbiaceae. Genus: Excoecaria. Species: E. agallocha. A widespread and common species, though there are some localised threats and there has been an overall population decline caused by coastal development. Common name: Blinding Tree, Milky mangrove, Blind-your-eye mangrove, River poison tree • Bengali: gewa • Hindi: Gangiva, Tejbala • Kannada: hara, haro.

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Traditional system of medicine consists of large agallocua of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances. This article provides a comprehensive review of the complete profile of an important mangrove plant Excoecaria agallocha L. Euphorbiaceae and elaborately describing the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties. It is used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases such as epilepsy, ulcers, leprosy, rheumatism, and paralysis.

The latex obtained from the bark is poisonous in nature and may cause temporary blindness, thus it is also known as the blind-your-eye mangrove plant.

Many phytoconstituents were isolated from excpecaria plant, which were mainly diterpenoids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, and few other compounds. The plant also showed many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, anticancer, antireverse transcriptase, antihistamine-release, antifilarial, DNA damage protective, antidiabetic, and excocearia protecting activities.

Hence, this review could help guide researchers anticipating to undertake further investigations in these directions. Medicinal plants are considered an important component of flora and are distributed widely throughout India. An upward trend has been observed in the research on herbals. The secondary metabolites found in the medicinal plants are regarded as the potential source of drugs and agaloocha are of immense therapeutic value.

Medicines derived from medicinal plants are also easily available, safer, economical, and effective.

Mangroves have long been a source of astonishment to the layman and of interest for the scientists. It is possible that the Portuguese first adapted the word, later to be modified by the Spanish, as a result of their exploration of the coast of west Africa.

Mangroves are woody halophytic plants which are ecologically of great importance. They act as a source of energy in coastal food chain and also protects against various natural calamities such as cyclone and tsunami. Many drugs, dyes, and tannins are obtained from the mangroves. Mangroves usually constitute from about eighty families of shrubs and trees which inhabits the shoreline and estuaries in the tropical and subtropical coastal regions of the world. They also function as natural nutrient filters and agallpcha, protect coastal areas from seawater intrusion, and also helps in floodwater mitigation.

The genus Excoecaria comprises nearly forty species which are distributed in the mangrove region of Asia, Africa, and northwest Australia. Unlike most mangrove species, they do not have specialized aerial roots called pneumatophores that extend agallocna the soil surface and supply the underground roots with oxygen.

Milky mangrove (Excoecaria agallocha)

This review article gives a critical description about the complete profile of the mangrove plant E. The details of the vernacular names are mentioned in [ Table 2 ]. Details are given in [ Table 3 ]. It is a small tree which usually grows up to 15 m in height [ Figure 1 ]. The full description of agallochha botanical features has been tabulated in [ Table 4 ].


Excoecaria agallocha

Branch of Excoecaria agallocha L. The plant is known to play an important economical, ecological as well as medicinal role. Treatment excoecatia rheumatism, leprosy, and paralysis is also cured by the bark oil obtained from E.

The leaves and latex of this plant are used as fish poison by the people of Malaysia, India, and New Agaplocha. In Thailand, the wood and bark is used as a cure for flatulence. In Solomon Islands, the latex exuded from the plant is mixed with coconut milk which is used agzllocha a powerful emetic and purgative. The Malays treat itching and skin infection by the oil distilled from the woods. The roots of the plant are used to treat toothache and swellings[ 20 ] as well as used as an ingredient of embrocations.

The chemical constituents of E. The chemical structures of some isolated compounds are given in Figure 2. Chemical structures of phyto-constituents isolated from Excoecaria agallocha L. Diterpenes are the most abundantly isolated secondary metabolite from E. Labdane-type diterpenes are the dominant class of diterpenes isolated.

About 41 labdane-type diterpenes 1—41 were isolated from E. New class of secolabdanoid compounds 37—40 with an unprecedented skeleton were isolated from the stems. Fourteen isopimarane-type diterpenes 42—55 were isolated from E.

So far, 12 kaurane-type diterpenes 56—67 were isolated from different parts of E. Most of the kaurane diterpenes are ent-kaurane derivatives. Fourteen artisane-type diterpenes 83—96 were isolated from different parts of E. Seven daphnane-type diterpenes 97— as cryptic and free skin irritant were isolated from the latex. A novel phorbol ester was isolated from stems and leaves as the anti-HIV principle. Four diterpenoids excoagallochaols A—D — with an unprecedented skeleton were also isolated from stems and leaves of the plant.

Seventeen triterpenoids — were isolated from various parts of E. The terpenoids isolated are oleanane, taraxerone, cycloartane, and lupane derivatives. InKonishi et al. Ten other compounds were isolated from the woods. Agaolocha were mainly organic acids, organic aga,locha esters and alcohol derivatives. The result showed that distilled water and ethanol fractions had high antioxidative activities compared to other fractions such as hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate.

The phenol content was also determined which was 2. The methanolic extract also showed potent nitric oxide radical inhibition IC 50 value 4. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by Varaprasad Bobbarala et al. Twelve microorganisms were taken to study antibacterial and antifungal activity, i.

The result revealed that methanol extract exhibited higher activity compared to hexane and chloroform extract. Minimum inhibitory concentration MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration of the methanolic extract were 3. The highest activity LC 50 recorded was The result revealed that methanolic extract of leaf derived callus showed more antibacterial activity than the wild grown and in vitro raised plants.


The mean zone of inhibition of the extract calculated ranged between 7. The result showed that in the dried plant sample, the leaf part showed more antibacterial activity against all the test organisms compared to the fresh plant extracts.

The result showed that the third fraction exhibited the maximum activity which was 12 mm against V. The Gram-negative bacterial strains revealed the zone of inhibition, i. The MIC values for E. The result showed significant antifungal activity in a dose dependent manner. The result showed positive for S. The analgesic effect of excoecadia Antiulcer activity of E. Thus, the leaves of the plant can be used as an antiulcerogenic agent. InExcoecariq et al.

Anticancer activity was also tested on leaf extract by Batsa and Periyasamy in cell line model, and the result revealed high activity at lower concentration when compared to higher concentration. At a particular higher concentration, the cell viability was more in methanol extract than the chloroform extract. Antireverse transcriptase activity of the ethanol extract of E.

The result showed that activity guided ethanol fraction of stem ethanol extract has a potent antireverse transcriptase activity. Antihistamine-release activity of E. DNA damage protective activity of E.

Antidiabetic activity of leaves of E.

Seven diterpenoids were isolated from E. Several diterpenoids were isolated from mangrove plant E. Of these diterpenes, the seco-labdane-type diterpenoid, Excoecarin T1 15 exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on EBVEA induction and a significant antitumor-promoting effect in the two-stage carcinogenesis test in mouse using DMBA as an initiator and TPA as a promoter.

Different parts of E. These include antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, anticancer, antireverse transcriptase, antihistamine-release, antifilarial, DNA damage protective, antidiabetic, and antitumor protecting activities. Several bioactive compounds belonging to various chemical groups were isolated from different parts of the plant.

Mostly diterpenoids were isolated and they were mainly labdane, isopimarane, kaurane, beyerane, artisane, daphnane, tigilane type diterpenoids. Other phytoconstituents isolated are mainly triterpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, tannins, and few other miscellaneous compounds Organic acids, organic acid esters, and alcohol derivatives. This review highlights several pharmacological and phytochemical studies that have demonstrated the therapeutic potential and phytochemical constituents of E.

His research involves bioactivity and phytochemical studies of various medicinal plant species. He has published more than 48 research articles in various international and national journals.

He has guided more than 20 M. Pharm students and presently seven students are pursuing PhD under his guidance. Rama Krishna and Dr. His research interest includes isolation and structural elucidation of phytoconstituents, chromatographic and phytochemical analysis, toxicological studies and pharmacological screening. His research interests are: He published more than research articles in various international and national journals. He trained 16 students for Ph. Six students are pursuing PhD under his guidance.