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Who Shall Survive? p. Fundamentos de la Sociometria p. não há Quem Sobreviverá? v. 3 p. GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY/AGE OF THE MEMBERS SOCIOMETRIA SISTEMA SOCIONOMICO SOCIODINAMICA Test de Epontaneidad Tabulación de datos. Ley Sociogenética Era predecible. Quem sobreviverá: Fundamentos da sociometria, psicoterapia de grupo e sociodrama. Authors: J. L. Moreno, R. Faria, A., RODRIGUES, M. Kafuri, NILSON F.

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This study sought out to understand the process of school inclusion of a student with physical disabilities in a public school in the Federal District of Brazil Distrito Federalwith an emphasis on social interactions.

Under this perspective, it was retrospectively analyzed the student’s social position relative to their peers in order to identify elements that could contribute to the process of school inclusion of a physically disabled student. The theoretical reference had as input the bioecological model of human development followed by fundamental concepts of disability, social and educational inclusion. The social position of the person with disability related to her classmates in the classroom context was identified by means of sociometric test.

The main results showed unfavorable social position of the student related to her peers and the lack of cohesion of the group as hindering her process of inclusion in the school. It was concluded that attitudinal barriers made it impossible her full integration in school. The possible impact of the poor quality of social interactions of the student for the student’s development was discussed. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http: The Bronfenbrenner Bioecological Model of Human Development contributes to the understanding of the phenomenon of social inclusion of a physically disabled person in the school context, since, it adds what is proper and common in regard to the evolving specificities of the person and also to its context and provide theoretical basis for understanding the interrelationships between these two elements person-context that result in human development Bronfenbrenner, The bio-ecological perspective calls for interaction between people face to face as a pontecial to produce proximal process.

In the school context the proximal processes may occur via the interaction of students with various educational players, with the symbols and objects of learning and also among peers. Such that, interpersonal relations established in this context are significant for children and adolescents.

The negatively established ties can cause academic results below expectations, physical and emotional alteration, but when the interpersonal relationships are positive, students achieve a good learning level, perfect social skills and are better able to cope with stressful situations Neto, To Grigorowitschsto socialize means transforming structures, processes and subjects through a dynamic that involves the subject and its peculiarities, interaction, communication and action in the context in which they live, as well as the different ways that social relations take place in a dimension not only objective, but also subjective.

On a macro level, according to Corsaro, Reis, and Nascimentopeer interaction can be understood as closeness between subjects through common interests and objectives, shared through daily face to face social interaction influencing on the building of values actively contributing to production and reproduction of culture. The face to face interaction between people can be understood by dyads research base that can be established when a subject observes another’s behavior; during the execution of joint operations; and durable interactive relations Bronfenbrenner, Yunes and Juliano state that “dyadic interactions can develop mutual feelings of affection or disaffection and lasting interactions primary dyads exist even in the physical absence of the participants” p.

According to Martins and Szymanskithe formation of a single dyad already contributes to human development as well as it contributes to the composition of other larger interpersonal structures involving more than two people.

Therefore, to have less chance to interact may also lead to fewer opportunities for the development of both social skills and emotional and cognitive aspects. Little interaction or negative interactions can affect the course of development leading to subsequent problems to handle more complex situations. In addition, Bronfenbrenner states that the objective and subjective changes in individuals are accompanied by changes in the person’s socialization process in several ways ecological transition pushing new developments.

However, social interactions deliberated within the family, school, community, among others, when unfavorable can expose children and adolescents to situations of vulnerability.

Thus, according to Netoit is considered that social interaction at the school gives opportunity to realize and exchange experience with the other and depending on the place that this other occupies, from a perception that is ruled by prejudice and indifference, can consolidate attitudinal barriers in the history and culture of a group. The establishment of new social relations that usually occurs in early adolescence impacts the way in which the teenager will experience this phase. Therefore in adolescence, to be integrated into a group in an active way through exchange among peers, friends bonds, among other experiences is essential for developing of the identity of the subject Macowski, However, the physically disabled adolescents can suffer interference in the course of their development since, living in a culture where the definition of normal guides relations and sets the attributes of a person to a social organization according to their production capacity.


The disabled body offends the established social order causing resistance in non-disabled people and interfering in both interpersonal relationships and in the person’s relationship with the disabilities within their own body Scully, Furthermore, the stigma, prejudice and misinformation that result from the socially established normal standard is a strong barrier to inclusion of diversity, influences the culture and promotes marginalization.

In the school the stigmas become obstacles to the recognition of the potential of people with disabilities because they are what obscure and limit their participation and learning and hinder their social integration Silva, Children with disabilities have shown less ability to initiate and maintain social relationships with their peers and that these difficulties can be attributed to the lack of autonomy in the cares of personal nature, to perform school assignments and to participate in plays and games, since they depend on an adult to do so Richardson, According to the author, the non-understanding of social cues, ignorance of how to approach people and the presence of an adult are obstacles to social interaction of the physically disabled.

Such statements underscore that attitudinal barriers installed in the interactive relations could strike in a harmful way the development of people with disabilities as well as their inclusion.

However, the focus on peer interaction is the awareness that everyone has limitations Mazzotta et al. This recognition may enable healthy interaction between the person with disability and their peers and ensure the full social inclusion.

School Inclusion of People With Physical Disabilities: The Role of Social Interactions

Inclusion means the rights of all, without distinction, to the opportunity of choice, the construction of identity, both personal and social. From this perspective, education as well as access and the permanence of all the students at all levels of education regardless of their individual aspects must be ensured Carneiro, However, several researchers point out that the current school model needs to be reconsidered so that the inclusion of people with disabilities occurs.

School inclusion extends from the physical space, to adequate training of professionals, and up to the social and cultural factors. To Richardson both structural barriers and the lack of training undermines the inclusion of the physically disabled into mainstream education classes. Mantoan and Prieto mainly considers social and cultural barriers to promote school inclusion and highlights the resistance to change of the specialized institutions; public policies that hinder the mobilization of schools to review their traditional and exclusionary practices; prejudice; and paternalism towards people with disabilities.

Considering the importance of social interactions for the healthy development and the barriers described in the literature to the socialization of children and adolescents with physical disabilities, this study sought to identify how social obstacles affect the advancement of persons with disabilities in the school context. This study aimed to describe the process of school inclusion of a student with disabilities in a public school in the Federal District with an emphasis on social interactions.

For that it was done the analysis of student social position relative to its peers identified through Sociometric test Moreno, This research was developed in the final years of a primary school of the public network of the Federal District, the survey was characterized as a predominantly qualitative case study. The school microsystem, selected by chance and convenience, is part of the public school system of the Brazilian Federal District.

The school catered to about 1, students with the majority coming from low-income families. The school offered the second stage of basic education, contemplating the sixth to the ninth grade of basic education. The research participants were students from a class of the sixth year of afternoon shift of the second stage of basic education, consisting of twenty-four students.

In this class there was a student with d physical disability and a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD thus justifying the reduced number of students in the class.

The physically disabled student was selected as a focal participant. However, during the test implementation sockometria respondents reported the name of 10 colleagues absent at the moment of data collection and two students were not mentioned by their classmates.

The name of each participant present and absent was replaced by unmatched initials to their names.

Fundamentos de la sociometría – J. L. Moreno – Google Books

Of all girls in the class, ed were present and answered the questionnaire and only three G, P and W were not there at the moment of collect, but were elected by their peers. Of the nine attendees, one was the focal research participant, had physical disabilities and made use of wheelchairs. The female students were aged between 11 and 13 years. Among male students, ages between 11 and 12 years, five responded to the questionnaire, five did not because they were absent but were voted M, O, Q, Y and Z and two students were absent YA and YU and received no votes.

The Sociometric Test was selected as the instrument for being a technique that identifies both the position and the category that a person occupies within a group and the bonds established in the group. This instrument assesses three variables of social interactions: The questionnaire consists of four questions comprising the choices in descending order of rank preferences and rejections that the participant makes of group members, followed by justifications for each of their choices; and questions of perceptual choices – the participant answers, according also to a decreasing order of rank preferences and rejectionshow would be to be chosen by the other members of the group, also followed by a justification for each of their choices.


The questionnaire provides an opportunity to make a general analysis of the psychosocial nature of a group Farinha, The four sociometric questionnaire questions are: The fnudamentos of the sociometric test took place in a single meeting, after the collecting of the Term of Informed Consent IC signed by the legal guardians of the students. To this end, the group was organized in a dw where the researcher asked each participant to introduce themselves stating name and age.

Soon after, the steps to be performed were explained: Soon after the completion of the warm-up game, the researcher distributed a sociometric questionnaire for each student.

The test was answered individually. Later, the researcher attended the class to develop an experiential workshop with the aim of informing indirectly on the search results. Data analysis was directed to the focal participant. Re data were analyzed separately by questions and sociometric matrices frames with double entry that generated sociograms and telic diagrams Bastin, ; Bustos, ; Moreno, As Morenothe structural analysis of sociograms was started by selection of insulated or non-selected individuals and individuals and that reject and are rejected.

Soon after, a comparison was made between the sociometric status of focal participant and colleagues and the analysis of the description of their behavior as respondents was done.

Then, pairings and triangulations were chosen and compared to the sociometric status of the focal participant. Next, each matrix was remade with a minimum of cross-line and subgroups clearly arranged.

Finally, each sociomatrix was turned into sociograms. Regarding the perceptual evaluation, we calculated the number of elections made by the the focal participant in relation to classmates then the equivalence between the focal participant in the elections to the elections held by colleagues perception index divided by the total members of the group minus one. Soon after, we calculate the emission rate: The number of times the focal participant was perceived by members of the group divided by the total number of members minus one Moreno, The use of graphic depictions sociograms and telic diagrams in the Sociometric test serve sociomerria illustrate the social dee within a group context identifying who are the preferred and rejected people by their companions Bastin, In addition to the sociograms, the bar graphs related to positive and negative elections are obtained by allocating points according to the preference that the participant was sociometrria so that the quote in first place is awarded three points, the second two points and the third one point.

The data collected through the sociometric questionnaire fundxmentos organized as follows: Question 1 positive elections and Question 2 negative elections show who the preferred and non-preferred members in the group are.

Regarding the Questions 3 positive perceptions and 4 negative perceptionsthey were designed sociometriz assess how the participants perceive and how are perceived by the group. Question 1 sought out to identify the preferences positive election of each participant within the group where each respondent, present at the fundamentoe of collection, named colleagues who they would like as a partner or working partner.

The sociogram of positive election illustrates the networks formed by preferences in the group with se order of interest and bond. According to Bustosthe choice can be unilateral or reciprocal between subjects where the first indicates strong bond, second moderate bond and third weak bond.

School Inclusion of People With Physical Disabilities : The Role of Social Interactions

Another important aspect is the position occupied by the individual within the sociogram, because according to Moreno the closer an individual is to the center of the circles, the highest the number of votes obtained and, if so, the better the sociometric status of the subject. The sociogram of positive election showed a group setting where E is not next to the concentric circle, but her position is not so bad compared fundxmentos 12 of her colleagues.

Another important point is that E, according to Moreno built a strong bond with T, as both are mutually elected in first place thus forming a pair within the group. E, just as T, justify their choice of first place because both talk and ssociometria each other.

However, when B elects E third, B clarifies the choice because B doesn’t have much conversation with E. However, E elects B second for considering the classmate not cundamentos friendly. According to Bustos that indicates a conflicted bond between B and E. The pair formed between T and E is evident, and does not unset by the presence of B. E goes to a safer laa relative to T and B because it was chosen by both.

On the other hand T and B were not chosen by anyone else of the group. This led to T and B having greater distance from the center of the circles compared to E.

On the other hand the components: Q, Sociometriia, A, D and C which were closer to the center of the circle, indicating strong attraction. The following is the group configuration when respondents chose their non-preferred colleagues.